1. The large disparity is due to some sources including Russia's war dead among those attributable to Stalin. This follows from the interpretation that Stalin's purges of the Red Army in the nineteen-thirties were directly responsible for the further catastrophic losses inflicted by the Nazis.
  2. glasnost - public accountability and openness. perestroika - fair reconstruction of economy.
  3. enforced labour camp.
  4. The official party newspaper. Meaning "truth", it purveyed official news and policy to the population. The article in question is rumoured to have been written by Stalin, after attendance at a performance of Lady Macbeth.

Bibliography / Discography


Blokker, R. & Dearling, R. The Music of Dmitri Shostakovich - The Symphonies (London: Associated University Presses, Inc. 1979.)

Dale, S. Soviet Composers and the Development of Soviet Music. (New York: W.W. Norton & Co. 1970)

Fay, L.E. Shostakovich - A Life (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.)

MacDonald, I. The New Shostakovich (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.)

McLellan, D. The Thought of Karl Marx (London: Macmillan Press Ltd. 1971.)

Ottaway, H. Shostakovich Symphonies (London: B.B.C. Publishing, 1978.)

Shepherd, J. Music as Social Text. (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1991.)

Sollertinsky, Dmitri & Ludmilla. (Translated by Hobbs, G. & Midgley, C.) Pages from the Life of Dmitri Shostakovich (London: Robert Hale. 1981. Orig. Novosti Press 1979.)

Strunk, O. (Ed.) Source Readings in Music History - The Twentieth Century. London: (W.W. Norton & Co. 1950 / 1998.)

Volkov, S (& Shostakovich, D.) Testimony - The Memoirs of Dmitri Shostakovich
(New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1979.)


Lehar, F. (Adapted and arranged by Hanmer, R.)The Merry Widow (London: Glocken Verlag Ltd. 1958.)

Tschaikowsky, P.I. Symphony No. 5 (London / Zurich. Edition Eulenburg, Ltd. E.E. 429)

Schostakowitsch, D. Lady Macbeth von Mzensk (Hamburg: Musikverlag Hans Sikorski H.S. 2313)

Shostakovich, Dmitri. Symphony No. 5 Op.47 (London / Zurich: Edition Eulenburg Ltd. E.E.6501)

Shostakovich, Dmitri. 7. Symphonie Op.60 (London: Anglo-Soviet Music Press, 1957.)
(Ed. Nr. 2229) (Boosey & Hawkes / Edition Sikorski. 1957)

Internet Articles

Iain Strachan's Shostakovich Website
A description and discussion of the mathematical codes incorporated in the music of Shostakovich.

Music under Soviet Rule
Site editor: Ian MacDonald
The parent site of Shostakovichiana. This site contains general information, with various contributors and sources, on music and musicians in the Soviet Union.

Site editor: Ian MacDonald
This site includes contributions by various authors on issues relating to Dmitri Shostakovich - both musical and political.


Shostakovich, Dmitri. Symphonies 2 & 3. The Age of Gold.
Bernard Haitink - Conductor
London Philharmonic Choir
London Philharmonic Orchestra
124 131 - 2

Shostakovich, Dmitri. Symphony No.4.
Neeme Järvi - Conductor
Scottish National Orchestra
Chandos Records Ltd.

Shostakovich, Dmitri. Symphony No. 5.
Bernard Haitink - Conductor
Concertgebouw Orchestra
410 017 - 2

Shostakovich, Dmitri. Symphony No.7 - the 'Leningrad'.
Neeme Järvi - Conductor
Scottish National Orchestra
Chandos Records Ltd. 1988
CHAN 8623

Shostakovich, Dmitri. Symphony No. 8.
Bernard Haitink - Conductor
Concertgebouw Orchestra
411 616 - 2

Tchaikovsky, P.I. Symphony No. 5
Paul van Kempen
The Concertgebouw Orchestra, Amsterdam
A 00141 L